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Hunter Peckham

Distinguished University Professor
Donnell Institute Professor of Biomedical Engineering
Professor Emeritus, Biomedical Engineering
Develops and clinically deploys implantable electronic stimulators to restore movement for patients with paralysis
Office: 116 Wickenden
Phone Number: (216) 368-6591
Email: pxp2@case.edu

Education

Ph.D., Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 1972
M.S., Engineering, Case Institute of Technology, 1968
B.S., Mechanical Engineering, Clarkson College of Technology, 1966

Publications

Kilgore, K., Anderson, K., & Peckham, H. H. (2020). Neuroprosthesis for individuals with spinal cord injury. Neurological Research, (), 1-13.
Kilgore, K., Smith, B., Campean, A., Hart, R., Lambrecht, J., Buckett, J., ... Peckham, H. H. (2020). Powering strategies for implanted multi-function neuroprostheses for spinal cord injury. Healthcare Technology Letters, 7 (3), 81-86.
Bullard, A., Nason, S., Irwin, Z., Nu, C., Smith, B., Campean, A., ... Chestek, C. (2019). Design and testing of a 96-channel neural interface module for the Networked Neuroprosthesis system. Bioelectronic Medicine, 5 (1).
Heald, E., Kilgore, K., Hart, R., Moss, C., & Peckham, H. H. (2019). Myoelectric signal from below the level of spinal cord injury as a command source for an implanted upper extremity neuroprosthesis - a case report. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 16 (1).
Conforto, A., Luccas, R., Menezes, I., Machado, A., Mello, E., Assis, P., ... Cohen, L. (2019). Abstract 120: Peripheral Nerve Stimulation to Enhance Upper Limb Motor Function in Stroke. Stroke, 50 (Suppl_1).
Kilgore, K., Bryden, A., Keith, M., Hoyen, H., Hart, R., Nemunaitis, G., ... Peckham, H. H. (2018). Evolution of Neuroprosthetic Approaches to Restoration of Upper Extremity Function in Spinal Cord Injury. Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation, 24 (3), 252-264.
Menezes, I., Cohen, L., Mello, E., Machado, A., Peckham, H. H., Anjos, S., ... Conforto, A. (2018). Combined Brain and Peripheral Nerve Stimulation in Chronic Stroke Patients With Moderate to Severe Motor Impairment: BRAIN AND PERIPHERAL NERVE STIMULATION. Neuromodulation: Techhnology at the Neural Interface, 21 (2), 176-183.
Menezes, I., Cohen, L., Mello, E., Machado, A., Peckham, H. H., Anjos, S., ... Conforto, A. (2018). Combined Brain and Peripheral Nerve Stimulation in Chronic Stroke Patients With Moderate to Severe Motor Impairment. NEUROMODULATION, 21 (2), 176-183.
Ajiboye, B. B., Willett, F., Young, D., Memberg, W., Murphy, B., Miller, J., ... Kirsch, B. F. (2017). Restoration of reaching and grasping movements through brain-controlled muscle stimulation in a person with tetraplegia: a proof-of-concept demonstration.. Lancet (London, England), ().
Heald, E., Hart, R., Kilgore, K., & Peckham, H. H. (2017). Characterization of Volitional Electromyographic Signals in the Lower Extremity After Motor Complete Spinal Cord Injury. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, ().
Menezes, I., Cohen, L., Mello, E., Machado, A., Peckham, H. H., Anjos, S., ... Conforto, A. (2017). Combined Brain and Peripheral Nerve Stimulation in Chronic Stroke Patients With Moderate to Severe Motor Impairment: BRAIN AND PERIPHERAL NERVE STIMULATION. Neuromodulation: Techhnology at the Neural Interface, ().
Ilfeld, B., Gabriel, R., Saulino, M., Chae, J., Peckham, H. H., Grant, S., ... Boggs, J. (2016). Infection Rates of Electrical Leads Used for Percutaneous Neurostimulation of the Peripheral Nervous System. Pain Practice [15307085], ().
Getzoff, N., Hochberg, L., Hoffmann, M., Judy, J., Kleitman, N., Knaack, G., ... Others (2016). Brain--computer interface devices for patients with paralysis and amputation. J. Neural Eng, 13 (023001), 023001.
Bowsher, K., Civillico, E., Coburn, J., Collinger, J., Contreras-Vidal, J., Denison, T., ... Nguyen, M. (2016). Brain–computer interface devices for patients with paralysis and amputation: a meeting report. Journal of Neural Engineering [17412560], 13 (2).
Peckham, H. H., & Kilgore, K. (2013). Challenges and opportunities in restoring function after paralysis.. IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering, 60 (3), 602-9.
Moss, C., Kilgore, K., & Peckham, H. H. (2011). A novel command signal for motor neuroprosthetic control.. Neurorehabilitation and neural repair, 25 (9), 847-54.
Hart, R., Bhadra, N., Montague, F., Kilgore, K., & Peckham, H. H. (2011). Design and testing of an advanced implantable neuroprosthesis with myoelectric control.. IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 19 (1), 45-53.
Moss, C., Kilgore, K., & Peckham, H. H. (2011). Training to improve volitional muscle activity in clinically paralyzed muscles for neuroprosthesis control.. Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference, 2011 (), 5794-7.
Wheeler, N., & Peckham, H. H. (2009). Wireless wearable controller for upper-limb neuroprosthesis.. Journal of rehabilitation research and development, 46 (2), 243-56.
Kilgore, K., Hoyen, H., Bryden, A., Hart, R., Keith, M., & Peckham, H. H. (2008). An implanted upper-extremity neuroprosthesis using myoelectric control.. The Journal of hand surgery, 33 (4), 539-50.
Ackermann, Jr, D., Smith, B., Wang, X., Kilgore, K., & Peckham, H. H. (2008). Designing the optical interface of a transcutaneous optical telemetry link.. IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering, 55 (4), 1365-73.
Frontera, W., Fuhrer, M., Jette, A., Chan, H., Cooper, R., Duncan, P., ... Tated, D. (2006). Rehabilitation medicine summit: building research capacity.. Disability and rehabilitation, 28 (1), 71-5.
Frontera, W., Fuhrer, M., Jette, A., Chan, H., Cooper, R., Duncan, P., ... Tate, D. (2006). Rehabilitation medicine summit: building research capacity executive summary.. Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation, 3 (), 1.
Kilgore, K., Hart, R., Montague, F., Bryden, A., Keith, M., Hoyen, H., ... Peckham, H. H. (2006). An implanted myoelectrically-controlled neuroprosthesis for upper extremity function in spinal cord injury.. Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference, 1 (), 1630-3.
Ackermann, D., Smith, B., Kilgore, K., & Peckham, H. H. (2006). Design of a high speed transcutaneous optical telemetry link.. Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference, 1 (), 2932-5.
Peckham, H. H., & Knutson, J. (2005). Functional electrical stimulation for neuromuscular applications.. Annual review of biomedical engineering, 7 (), 327-60.
Knutson, J., Hoyen, H., Kilgore, K., & Peckham, H. H. (2004). Simulated neuroprosthesis state activation and hand-position control using myoelectric signals from wrist muscles.. Journal of rehabilitation research and development, 41 (3B), 461-72.
Bryden, A., Wuolle, K., Murray, P., & Peckham, H. H. (2004). Perceived outcomes and utilization of upper extremity surgical reconstruction in individuals with tetraplegia at model spinal cord injury systems.. Spinal cord, 42 (3), 169-76.
Kilgore, K., Peckham, H. H., Keith, M., Montague, F., Hart, R., Gazdik, M., ... Stage, T. (2003). Durability of implanted electrodes and leads in an upper-limb neuroprosthesis.. Journal of rehabilitation research and development, 40 (6), 457-68.
Wuolle, K., Bryden, A., Peckham, H. H., Murray, P., & Keith, M. (2003). Satisfaction with upper-extremity surgery in individuals with tetraplegia.. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 84 (8), 1145-9.
Knutson, J., Naples, G., Peckham, H. H., & Keith, M. (2002). Electrode fracture rates and occurrences of infection and granuloma associated with percutaneous intramuscular electrodes in upper-limb functional electrical stimulation applications.. Journal of rehabilitation research and development, 39 (6), 671-83.
Bhadra, N., Peckham, H. H., Keith, M., Kilgore, K., Montague, F., Gazdik, M., ... Stage, T. (2002). Implementation of an implantable joint-angle transducer.. Journal of rehabilitation research and development, 39 (3), 411-22.
Peckham, H. H., Kilgore, K., Keith, M., Bryden, A., Bhadra, N., & Montague, F. (2002). An advanced neuroprosthesis for restoration of hand and upper arm control using an implantable controller.. The Journal of hand surgery, 27 (2), 265-76.
Grill, W., McDonald, J., Peckham, H. H., Heetderks, W., Kocsis, J., & Weinrich, M. (2001). At the interface: convergence of neural regeneration and neural prostheses for restoration of function.. Journal of rehabilitation research and development, 38 (6), 633-9.
Peckham, H. H., Keith, M., Kilgore, K., Grill, J., Wuolle, K., Thrope, G., ... Wiegner, A. (2001). Efficacy of an implanted neuroprosthesis for restoring hand grasp in tetraplegia: a multicenter study.. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 82 (10), 1380-8.
Bhadra, N., Kilgore, K., & Peckham, H. H. (2001). Implanted stimulators for restoration of function in spinal cord injury.. Medical engineering & physics, 23 (1), 19-28.
Lauer, R., Peckham, H. H., Kilgore, K., & Heetderks, W. (2000). Applications of cortical signals to neuroprosthetic control: a critical review.. IEEE transactions on rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 8 (2), 205-8.
Wolpaw, J., Birbaumer, N., Heetderks, W., McFarland, D., Peckham, H. H., Schalk, G., ... Vaughan, T. (2000). Brain-computer interface technology: a review of the first international meeting.. IEEE transactions on rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 8 (2), 164-73.
Creasey, G., Kilgore, K., Brown-Triolo, D., Dahlberg, J., Peckham, H. H., & Keith, M. (2000). Reduction of costs of disability using neuroprostheses.. Assistive technology : the official journal of RESNA, 12 (1), 67-75.
Johnson, M., Peckham, H. H., Bhadra, N., Kilgore, K., Gazdik, M., Keith, M., ... Strojnik, P. (1999). Implantable transducer for two-degree of freedom joint angle sensing.. IEEE transactions on rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 7 (3), 349-59.
Bhadra, N., Keith, M., & Peckham, H. H. (1999). Variations in innervation of the flexor digitorum profundus muscle.. The Journal of hand surgery, 24 (4), 700-3.
Lauer, R., Peckham, H. H., & Kilgore, K. (1999). EEG-based control of a hand grasp neuroprosthesis.. Neuroreport, 10 (8), 1767-71.
Deitz, J., Quatrano, L., Peckham, H. H., Bach-Y-Rita, P., Cooper, R., & Joe, J. (1999). The grant portfolio of the National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research: the first five years.. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 80 (5), 481-4.
Lauer, R., Kilgore, K., Peckham, H. H., Bhadra, N., & Keith, M. (1999). The function of the finger intrinsic muscles in response to electrical stimulation.. IEEE transactions on rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 7 (1), 19-26.
Lauer, R., Kilgore, K., Peckham, H. H., Bhadra, N., & Keith, M. (1999). The function of the finger intrinsic muscles in response to electrical stimulation.. IEEE transactions on rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 7 (1), 19-26.
Stroh Wuolle, K., Van Doren, C., Bryden, A., Peckham, H. H., Keith, M., Kilgore, K., ... Grill, J. (1999). Satisfaction with and usage of a hand neuroprosthesis.. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 80 (2), 206-13.
Kilgore, K., Lauer, R., & Peckham, H. H. (1998). A transducer for the measurement of finger joint moments.. IEEE transactions on rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 6 (4), 424-9.
Gorman, P., Kikta, D., & Peckham, H. H. (1998). Neurophysiologic evaluation of lower motor neuron damage in tetraplegia.. Muscle & nerve, 21 (10), 1321-3.
Hart, R., Kilgore, K., & Peckham, H. H. (1998). A comparison between control methods for implanted FES hand-grasp systems.. IEEE transactions on rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 6 (2), 208-18.
Grill, J., & Peckham, H. H. (1998). Functional neuromuscular stimulation for combined control of elbow extension and hand grasp in C5 and C6 quadriplegics.. IEEE transactions on rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 6 (2), 190-9.
Smith, B., Tang, Z., Johnson, M., Pourmehdi, S., Gazdik, M., Buckett, J., ... Peckham, H. H. (1998). An externally powered, multichannel, implantable stimulator-telemeter for control of paralyzed muscle.. IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering, 45 (4), 463-75.
Bhadra, N., & Peckham, H. H. (1997). Peripheral nerve stimulation for restoration of motor function.. Journal of clinical neurophysiology : official publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society, 14 (5), 378-93.
Gorman, P., Wuolle, K., Peckham, H. H., & Heydrick, D. (1997). Patient selection for an upper extremity neuroprosthesis in tetraplegic individuals.. Spinal cord, 35 (9), 569-73.
Scott, T., Bhadra, N., Kilgore, K., & Peckham, H. H. (1997). The monitoring of tendon tension with an implantable intratendon probe and its use in the control of neuroprostheses.. IEEE transactions on rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 5 (2), 233-5.
Scott, T., Bhadra, N., Kilgore, K., & Peckham, H. H. (1997). The monitoring of tendon tension with an implantable intratendon probe and its use in the control of neuroprostheses.. IEEE transactions on rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 5 (2), 233-5.
Akers, J., Peckham, H. H., Keith, M., & Merritt, K. (1997). Tissue response to chronically stimulated implanted epimysial and intramuscular electrodes.. IEEE transactions on rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 5 (2), 207-20.
Kilgore, K., Peckham, H. H., Keith, M., Thrope, G., Wuolle, K., Bryden, A., ... Hart, R. (1997). An implanted upper-extremity neuroprosthesis. Follow-up of five patients.. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume, 79 (4), 533-41.
Scott, T., Peckham, H. H., & Kilgore, K. (1996). Tri-state myoelectric control of bilateral upper extremity neuroprostheses for tetraplegic individuals.. IEEE transactions on rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 4 (4), 251-63.
Peckham, H. H., Thrope, G., Woloszko, J., Habasevich, R., Scherer, M., & Kantor, C. (1996). Technology transfer of neuroprosthetic devices.. Journal of rehabilitation research and development, 33 (2), 173-83.
Peckham, H. H., & Gray, D. (1996). Functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS).. Journal of rehabilitation research and development, 33 (2), ix-xi.
Keith, M., Kilgore, K., Peckham, H. H., Wuolle, K., Creasey, G., & Lemay, M. (1996). Tendon transfers and functional electrical stimulation for restoration of hand function in spinal cord injury.. The Journal of hand surgery, 21 (1), 89-99.
Scott, T., Peckham, H. H., & Keith, M. (1995). Upper extremity neuroprostheses using functional electrical stimulation.. Bailliere's clinical neurology, 4 (1), 57-75.
Wuolle, K., Van Doren, C., Thrope, G., Keith, M., & Peckham, H. H. (1994). Development of a quantitative hand grasp and release test for patients with tetraplegia using a hand neuroprosthesis.. The Journal of hand surgery, 19 (2), 209-18.
Mulcahey, M., Smith, B., Betz, R., Triolo, R., & Peckham, H. H. (1994). Functional neuromuscular stimulation: outcomes in young people with tetraplegia.. The Journal of the American Paraplegia Society, 17 (1), 20-35.
Kilgore, K., & Peckham, H. H. (1993). Grasp synthesis for upper-extremity FNS. Part 1. Automated method for synthesising the stimulus map.. Medical & biological engineering & computing, 31 (6), 607-14.
Kilgore, K., & Peckham, H. H. (1993). Grasp synthesis for upper-extremity FNS. Part 2. Evaluation of the influence of electrode recruitment properties.. Medical & biological engineering & computing, 31 (6), 615-22.
Betz, R., Mulcahey, M., Smith, B., Triolo, R., Weiss, M., Moynahan, M., ... Peckham, H. H. (1992). Bipolar latissimus dorsi transposition and functional neuromuscular stimulation to restore elbow flexion in an individual with C4 quadriplegia and C5 denervation.. The Journal of the American Paraplegia Society, 15 (4), 220-8.
Peckham, H. H., & Creasey, G. (1992). Neural prostheses: clinical applications of functional electrical stimulation in spinal cord injury.. Paraplegia, 30 (2), 96-101.
Letechipia, J., Peckham, H. H., Gazdik, M., & Smith, B. (1991). In-line lead connector for use with implanted neuroprosthesis.. IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering, 38 (7), 707-9.
Wijman, C., Strohl, K., Van Doren, C., Thrope, G., Peckham, H. H., & Keith, M. (1990). Functional evaluation of quadriplegic patients using a hand neuroprosthesis.. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 71 (13), 1053-7.
Johnson, M., & Peckham, H. H. (1990). Evaluation of shoulder movement as a command control source.. IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering, 37 (9), 876-85.
Kilgore, K., Peckham, H. H., Keith, M., & Thrope, G. (1990). Electrode characterization for functional application to upper extremity FNS.. IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering, 37 (1), 12-21.
Miller, A., Peckham, H. H., & Keith, M. (1989). Elbow extension in the C5 quadriplegic using functional neuromuscular stimulation.. IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering, 36 (7), 771-80.
Kilgore, K., Peckham, H. H., Thrope, G., Keith, M., & Gallaher-Stone, K. (1989). Synthesis of hand grasp using functional neuromuscular stimulation.. IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering, 36 (7), 761-70.
Keith, M., Peckham, H. H., Thrope, G., Strohl, K., Smith, B., Buckett, J., ... Jatich, J. (1989). Implantable functional neuromuscular stimulation in the tetraplegic hand.. The Journal of hand surgery, 14 (3), 524-30.
Buckett, J., Peckham, H. H., Thrope, G., Braswell, S., & Keith, M. (1988). A flexible, portable system for neuromuscular stimulation in the paralyzed upper extremity.. IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering, 35 (11), 897-904.
Mendelson, L., Peckham, H. H., Freehafer, A., & Keith, M. (1988). Intraoperative assessment of wrist extensor muscle force.. The Journal of hand surgery, 13 (6), 832-6.
Freehafer, A., Peckham, H. H., & Keith, M. (1988). New concepts on treatment of the upper limb in the tetraplegic. Surgical restoration and functional neuromuscular stimulation.. Hand clinics, 4 (4), 563-74.
Keith, M., Peckham, H. H., Thrope, G., Buckett, J., Strohl, K., & Menger, V. (1988). Functional neuromuscular stimulation neuroprostheses for the tetraplegic hand.. Clinical orthopaedics and related research, (233), 25-33.
Peckham, H. H., Keith, M., & Freehafer, A. (1988). Restoration of functional control by electrical stimulation in the upper extremity of the quadriplegic patient.. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume, 70 (1), 144-8.
Freehafer, A., Peckham, H. H., Keith, M., & Mendelson, L. (1988). The brachioradialis: anatomy, properties, and value for tendon transfer in the tetraplegic.. The Journal of hand surgery, 13 (1), 99-104.
Smith, B., Peckham, H. H., Keith, M., & Roscoe, D. (1987). An externally powered, multichannel, implantable stimulator for versatile control of paralyzed muscle.. IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering, 34 (7), 499-508.
Peckham, H. H. (1987). Functional electrical stimulation: current status and future prospects of applications to the neuromuscular system in spinal cord injury.. Paraplegia, 25 (3), 279-88.
Lacey, S., Wilber, R., Peckham, H. H., & Freehafer, A. (1986). The posterior deltoid to triceps transfer: a clinical and biomechanical assessment.. The Journal of hand surgery, 11 (4), 542-7.
Kelly, M., Freehafer, A., Peckham, H. H., & Strohl, K. (1985). Postoperative results of opponensplasty and flexor tendon transfer in patients with spinal cord injuries.. The Journal of hand surgery, 10 (6 Pt 1), 890-4.
Thrope, G., Peckham, H. H., & Crago, P. E. (1985). A computer-controlled multichannel stimulation system for laboratory use in functional neuromuscular stimulation.. IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering, 32 (6), 363-70.
Freehafer, A., Kelly, M., & Peckham, H. H. (1984). Tendon transfer for the restoration of upper limb function after a cervical spinal cord injury.. The Journal of hand surgery, 9 (6), 887-93.
Thrope, G., Buckett, J., & Peckham, H. H. (1982). Tape recorder control for persons with limited hand function.. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 63 (10), 495.
Peckham, H. H., Poon, C., Ko, W. H., Marsolais, E., & Rosen, J. (1981). Multichannel implantable stimulator for control of paralyzed muscle.. IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering, 28 (7), 530-6.
Poon, C., Ko, W. H., Peckham, H. H., McNeal, D., & Sun, J. (1981). An implantable RF-powered dual channel stimulator.. Biotelemetry and patient monitoring, 8 (3), 180-8.
Crago, P. E., Peckham, H. H., & Thrope, G. (1980). Modulation of muscle force by recruitment during intramuscular stimulation.. IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering, 27 (12), 679-84.
Peckham, H. H., Marsolais, E., & Mortimer, J. (1980). Restoration of key grip and release in the C6 tetraplegic patient through functional electrical stimulation.. The Journal of hand surgery, 5 (5), 462-9.
Crago, P. E., Mortimer, J., & Peckham, H. H. (1980). Closed-loop control of force during electrical stimulation of muscle.. IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering, 27 (6), 306-12.
Peckham, H. H., Mortimer, J., & Marsolais, E. (1980). Controlled prehension and release in the C5 quadriplegic elicited by functional electrical stimulation of the paralyzed forearm musculature.. Annals of biomedical engineering, 8 (4-6), 369-88.
Freehafer, A., Peckham, H. H., & Keith, M. (1979). Determination of muscle-tendon unit properties during tendon transfer.. The Journal of hand surgery, 4 (4), 331-9.
Peckham, H. H., Mortimer, J., & Marsolais, E. (1976). Upper and lower motor neuron lesions in the upper extremity muscles of tetraplegics.. Paraplegia, 14 (2), 115-21.
Peckham, H. H., Mortimer, J., & Marsolais, E. (1976). Alteration in the force and fatigability of skeletal muscle in quadriplegic humans following exercise induced by chronic electrical stimulation.. Clinical orthopaedics and related research, (114), 326-33.
Crago, P. E., Peckham, H. H., Mortimer, J., & Van der Meulen, J. (1974). The choice of pulse duration for chronic electrical stimulation via surface, nerve, and intramuscular electrodes.. Annals of biomedical engineering, 2 (3), 252-64.
Van der Meulen, J., Peckham, H. H., & Mortimer, J. (1974). Trophic functions of the neuron. 3. Mechanisms of neurotrophic interactions. Use and disuse of muscle.. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 228 (), 177-89.
Peckham, H. H., Mortimer, J., & Van der Meulen, J. (1973). Physiologic and metabolic changes in white muscle of cat following induced exercise.. Brain research, 50 (2), 424-9.
Gibbons, D., Peckham, H. H., & González-Martínez, J. (1972). Vitreous carbon percutaneous electrodes for muscle stimulation.. Journal of biomedical materials research, 6 (4), 155-64.