Artificial intelligence in digital pathology - new tools for diagnosis and precision oncology.

TitleArtificial intelligence in digital pathology - new tools for diagnosis and precision oncology.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsBera, K, Schalper KA, Rimm DL, Velcheti V, Madabhushi A
JournalNature reviews. Clinical oncology
Date Published2019 11
KeywordsArtificial Intelligence, Humans, Medical Oncology, Neoplasms, Pathology, Clinical, Precision Medicine

In the past decade, advances in precision oncology have resulted in an increased demand for predictive assays that enable the selection and stratification of patients for treatment. The enormous divergence of signalling and transcriptional networks mediating the crosstalk between cancer, stromal and immune cells complicates the development of functionally relevant biomarkers based on a single gene or protein. However, the result of these complex processes can be uniquely captured in the morphometric features of stained tissue specimens. The possibility of digitizing whole-slide images of tissue has led to the advent of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning tools in digital pathology, which enable mining of subvisual morphometric phenotypes and might, ultimately, improve patient management. In this Perspective, we critically evaluate various AI-based computational approaches for digital pathology, focusing on deep neural networks and 'hand-crafted' feature-based methodologies. We aim to provide a broad framework for incorporating AI and machine learning tools into clinical oncology, with an emphasis on biomarker development. We discuss some of the challenges relating to the use of AI, including the need for well-curated validation datasets, regulatory approval and fair reimbursement strategies. Finally, we present potential future opportunities for precision oncology.

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Alternate JournalNat Rev Clin Oncol

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